RUE Episode 108: Removal

Welcome to the Episode 108 page of Ramping Up your English.

Daniel Boone leads white settlers to Shawnee territory in Kentucky.
Some Shawnee respond by kidnapping Boone’s daughter. In only a few years, white settlers numbered over 100,000, disrupting the lives of Shawnee people. The daughter was rescued and most Shawnee moved north of the Ohio River.
Resistance from the Northwest Confederacy ended with the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
Tecumseh’s pan-Indian resistance to United States settlers produced some moments of hope for Native Americans in the Old Northwest Territory, but it ended with Tecumseh’s death and the end of the movement he led.
The Cherokee people had won a ruling fro the U.S. Supreme Court that they could remain in Georgia, yet they were forced from their homes. They were later removed to land west of the Mississippi River. Over 4000 died during the Trail of Tears.

Watching Episode 108

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Episode 108 Summary

Even before the Independence of the United States, the Shawnee in Kentucky struggled to control their own territory. Hunters and then settlers led by Danial Boone encroached on their land, and it became impossible to hold onto it.

Just as the Shawnee had to remove themselves from Kentucky under pressure and violence from colonists, some Euro-Americans who supported England in the war had to move to Canada to get away from hostile neighbors eager to take over their land. Many Native Americans who had fought for England also migrated to Canada.

The new independent country of the United States of America developed the Constitution, which separated powers and reserved self-governing powers for constituent states – somewhat like the Iroquois League and other Native American Confederations. The first 10 amendments listed the rights of citizens, but that didn’t apply to Native Americans.

The Northwest Ordinance was one of the first acts of the new nation. It forbade slavery and mandated fair treatment of Native Americans in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes area, In practice, fair treatment was rare. When the army was sent to establish sovereignty of the U.S. over this region, they were defeated by the Miami and other regional groups.

Many of those groups formed the Northwest Confederacy to forbid selling Indian land and provide common defense. Little Turtle and Blue Jacket defeated the United States in its attempt to expand borders north of the Ohio River, but Northwest Confederacy warriors were defeated by General Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The Treaty of Greenville moved the border northward, and Native Americans lost a great amount of their land to settlers.

President Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory from Napoleon, and sent the Corps of Discovery under Lewis and Clark to establish relations with Native Americans living there. With vital assistance from several tribes, the Corps reached the Pacific Ocean and then returned. This allowed numerous tribes to connect with the United States as a trading partner and accept the presence of the United States in their country.

Shawnee war chief Tecumseh organized a pan-Indian movement to resist the takeover of Indian land by the United States. He allied with the British during the War of 1812 and had some early success with taking some forts. Ultimately, Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames, and the pan-Indian alliance crumbled. It was the last wide-spread pan-Indian effort to stop the expansion of the United States at the expense of Native Americans.

In the Southeast, the Creek Wars pitted the Red Sticks – who opposed U.S. Expansion – against the White Sticks – who strove to live at peace with the U.S. After the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, both sides lost their homeland and had to move west of the Mississippi River. Efforts to remove the Seminoles in Florida was met with deadly resistance. Even the Choctaw and the Cherokee – who worked hard to be acceptable to white people – were forced to leave their homelands. The Cherokee removal is known as the Trail of Tears.

Language Objectives

Use past-tense verbs to Give Examples of when encroachment by white settlers caused suffering of Native Americans

Use appropriate conjunctions for linking cause and effect to Draw conclusions of how the loss of hunting grounds to settlers caused hardships for specific Native American tribes

Use appropriate conjunctions and phrases to List causes of the Tecumseh’sWar.

Use appropriate conjunctions and phrases to List effects of Tecumseh’s War on both the United States and Native Americans in the Northwest Territory.

Use descriptive words and phases to Characterize the actions of the Northwest Alliance when the United States tried to establish sovereignty of the Northwest Territory.

Use descriptive words and phases to Characterize the actions of the U.S. Army in military campaigns against the Northwest Confederacy.

Use sequencing words and phases to briefly summarize the actions taken by Little Turtle and Blue Jacket to protect their territory.

Academic Content Objectives

Characterize  the military actions by General St. Clair against the Northwest Confederacy.

List causes of Tecumseh’s War..

Describe efforts by Tecumseh to assemble a pan-Indian movement to resist encroachment of white settlers on Indian land.

Explain how the New Madrid Earthquake may have led to pan-Indian efforts to resist settlers on Indian land.

Characterize the efforts by Tecumseh to launch a pan-Indian effort to Limit the boundaries of the United States.

Characterize the actions by Native Americans under Tecumseh to help Britain win against the United States.

Characterize diplomatic efforts of Tecumseh to side with the British Army. in opposing the United States.

Contrast the edicts of the Northwest Ordinance with the treatment of Native Americans in the Northwest Territory.

Locate on a map the area claimed by the Northwest Confederacy as Indian Country.

Explain why the Choctaw and Chickasaw send warriors to assist the United States in attacking the Northwest Confederacy. (This is an inference. Why do you think they helped?)

Characterize the violence that occurred in the war that ended at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

Describe the results of the Greenville Treaty

Characterize the geography of the Louisiana Territory.

Trace the developments that led to the Battle of Tipi-canoe.

Characterize the meeting between Tecumseh and William Henri Harrison.

Characterize the Creek War.

List the tribes of warriors who joined Tecumseh in his attempt to fight against the United States.

Explain impact of Tecumseh’s War and the War of 1812 on Native Americans East of the Mississippi and on expansion of the United States.

Trace the main events that led up to the Seminole War.

Characterize the nature of the Choctaw Nation and their relation to the United States.

Characterize the Red Stick faction of the Muskogee (Creek) Indians.

Characterize the Fort Mims Massacre.

Characterize the actions of Andrew Jackson’s Tennessee Volunteers at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

Characterize the Treaty of Fort Jackson from a Native American perspective.

Explain how the removal of Creek Indians from the Southeast is an example of ethnic cleansing.

Compare and contrast the removal of the Choctaw with the removal of the Creeks.

Characterize the efforts of the Choctaw and Cherokee to become acceptable to Euro-Americans.

Characterize the response of many congressmen, journalists and former presidents to the efforts of Chief John Ross to have the Cherokee remain on their land.

Trace the efforts of Andrew Jackson to remove Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi River.

Characterize the Cherokee Trail of Tears.

Videos Used in Episode 108

This episode is focused of a video about Native Americans in North American. It’s entitled Removal. Click here to see the long version of this video.

The video that actually appears in Episode 108 is further edited to fit time restraints. Click here to see that version.

Links to related Videos

It’s important to view a variety of videos from a variety of sources to better fine-tune your listening comprehension. Click here to watch this You Tube video about the Cherokee.

To explore an education center for learning about the Cherokee, click here to see this video.

To learn about the Eastern Band of the Cherokee, click here.

A lot of work is being done to revive and preserve the language of the Cherokee. Click here to learn more about it.

Learn about the clan system of the Cherokees from this Video. Click here to see the video.

Learn about the Muskogee (Creek) people from this video. Click here to watch.

Learn about Native Americans in Florida from a video by the National Park Service. Click here to View.

Learn about New Echota from this video. Click here to watch.

For a look at the War of 1812 in the Old Northwest, Click here.

The Battle at Horseshoe Bend was central to Native Americans losing their fight for keeping their land. Click here to watch a video.

Learn more about Tecumseh in these videos. Click here for Part One. For Part Two from the same TV production, click here.

Next Episode

The Episode 109 page is ready for your visit. Click here to see the Episode 109 page with a link to the Video RUE Episode 109: The Great Plains.