RUE Episode 93: 1491, Part 1

The year 1491 is noted as the last year before Europeans began their activities that devastated so many Native Americans. This episode features the first part of the Video Native Americans Part 7: 1491.

Watching Episode 93

Episode 93 is now available on Click here to watch Episode 93 of Ramping Up your English. The above link takes you to where you can watch and even download this episode for free. Just be aware that the title on is wrong. It should be entitled 1491, Part 1 like the title on this page. Instead the title is Comparing Verb Tenses – which should go with Episode 92. I apologize for the confusion. I’m not sure how this happened.

Watching Episode 93 in segments

Due to very low demand, we will no longer make our episodes available in segments. If this decision affects you negatively, please send an email to and put “Segments” in the subject line. I’ll restore the service if I get enough demand.

Episode Summary

A last look at America before Columbus – that’s the focus of this episode. We also do a quick review of the Past Perfect Verb Tense. In this episode, viewers watch part 1 of 1491 – the seventh video in a series on Native Americans produced by LetzCreate Productions. While the previous episode was heavy on grammar and usage, this episode is heavy on content. We’re trying to get some sense of how some Native Americans lived at a time when only Native Americans inhabited America.

This episode includes part of an interview with Pat McMillan – curator of the Favell Museum of Western Art in Klamath Falls, Oregon, and Thomas Doty – a Native American storyteller sharing his knowledge of the Takelma people from Southern Oregon.

Language Objectives

Listening Comprehension is the main language focus of this episode. The objective is that the viewer – having seen and heard many videos on the subject of Native Americans – will be able to comprehend and increasing amount of content in videos on the same subject.

Relate a past event, action, or situation in relation to other past events, actions, and situations using the Past Progressive Verb Tense.

Academic Content Objectives

Locate the areas of some tribes using a map of North America.

Name some indigenous tribes that inhabited various regions in North America.

Name the main food sources of Native American groups in the Pacific Northwest.

Trace the migration of the Navajo people to the Southwest region. Describe some of the conflicts that occurred during the Navajo Migration.

Identify beliefs and values of the Navajo people in terms of how they interacted with their environment. Explain the concept of balance as held by the Navajo.

Videos Used in Episode 93

This episode was largely focussed on the Seventh video in the Native American series. We features Part 1 of that video. Here’s the link to the video: click here. We’ll use Part 2 of this video in a subsequent episode.

Learning Materials

In this Episode, we reviewed the Past Perfect Verb Tense. Here are the visuals we used in Episode 93:

These are some notes from the Video we played earlier in Episode 93: Part One of Native Americans 7: 1491
Here are more notes from the same video.
Native Americans
This is a third page of notes from the video. We’ll use these notes to write sentences using the Past Perfect Verb Tense.
Ramping Up your English
Here’s how the Past Perfect is formed: Use the helping Verb HAD, and add the Past Participle of the main verb.
Content-based ESL
The Past Perfect tense relates past events, actions, or situations in relation with other past events, actions, or situations. Here are some prepositional phrases that can fix events, actions, and situations in the past.
Past Perfect Verb Tense
The Past Perfect verbs are highlighted and set in all caps for emphasis.
John Letz
To save time and space, we no longer include the prepositions.
In order to save space, I didn’t write the whole sentences. Be sure to watch Episode 93 to see and hear the entire lesson.

Next Episode

Episode 94 has been produced, and the Episode 94 page is ready for your visit. Click here to visit Episode 94 of Ramping Up your English..