Native American tribes united to oppose British rule in their lands in North America. At the same time, the English colonies united to gain independence from England.
Welcome to Episode 107
The story of Native Americans reached the French and Indian War in our last episode. Now we learn how the victorious English treated Native Americans without the French as competitors.
More importantly, we see how Native Americans responded to this change. That’s what this episode is all about. Here’s another chance for viewers to develop higher levels of listening comprehension.
Watching Episode 107
This episode is available for free (and ad-free) viewing on archive.org. Just click here to see the entire episode as seen on RVTV’s Public Access channel.
Episode 107 is about events occurring between the French and Indian War (the Seven Years War in European terms) and the American Revolutionary war. The entire episode is centered on the video about this period.
We begin with some examples of Native Americans and colonists uniting to promote common interest. When the Fox were driven out of their homeland by a united effort by allies of the French, they united with the Sauk to rebuild their lives further West.
Various groups who were decimated by disease and conflict united with other tribes to become part of those tribes, like the Catawba, the Muskogee, and the Seminoles. Use of the Black Drink provided spiritual power the Native Americans in the Southeast. The Cherokee had their own accent healing ways.
While the Cherokee did most of their trading with English colonists, they attacked when settlers encroached on their lands. English forces attacked them, forcing the Cherokee to give up more of their lands to reestablish peace.
Up North, the Iroquois formed alliances with the English and other Indian nations as the Covenant Chain. The union of the five tribes made them powerful and influential far beyond their own boundaries.
After the Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War, Native Americans found the English condescending and unwilling to offer the goods they wanted for trade. Additionally, settlers kept encroaching on Indian land, threatening the ability of Indigenous Americans to continue their existence.
Ottawa war chief Pontiac travelled among villages in the region and convinced numerous warriors to join him in pushing the English out of the Great Lakes region and the Ohio Valley. This uniting of different groups brought this effort initial success in attacking English forts. The fierce fighting resulted in neither side achieving their goal, but it resulted in better treatment by the English. Pontiac signed a peace treaty with the English, but English colonists were angered by opposition to expanding settlement onto Indian land.
In Pennsylvania, the Conestoga Massacre was carried out by a group called the Paxton Boys. They murdered unarmed, peaceful Indians who had lived with the white community in peace for many years. Violence continued along the frontier, west of the Proclamation Line that was established but poorly enforced by the British.
In the American Southwest, the Comanche took advantage of the Spanish horse and French firearms to dominate the Southern Plains in today’s Texas and Oklahoma. Spanish officials began treating them as their own nation after defeating a punitive military expedition at Spanish Fort. Further west, Father Garces and Juan Bautista de Anza made friends among the Pima, Yuma and Puma people as they explored the area, even arriving at the California mission at San Gabriel. Anza became governor of New Mexico and negotiated a peace treaty with the Comanche. Garces was killed in a Yuma revolt, hence closing the route that he and Anza had opened between Santa Fe and California.
On the Atlantic Coast, the colonies resisted paying taxes to the English crown and eventually they declared their independence from England. The American Revolutionary war broke out pitting the united colonies against the English army. Native Americans fought on both sides. When the English surrendered at Yorktown, some Native American groups – including some members of the Iroquois League – had fought for the losing side. All were left to predict how the newborn United States would treat them.
The above summary is taken directly from the video featured in this episode. Use this summary after watching the video to reinforce your comprehension. The objectives are:
Use past-tense verbs to Give Examples of when uniting produced benefits for uniting parties.
Use appropriate conjunctions for linking cause and effect toDraw conclusions of how uniting led to greater power for those who united.
Use appropriate conjunctions and phrases to List causes of Pontiac’s War.
Use appropriate conjunctions and phrases to List effects of Pontiac’s war on both the English and the united tribes who fought the English.
Use descriptive words and phases to Characterize the initial period of Pontiac’s War.
Use sequencing words and phases to briefly summarize the main events of Pontiac’s War.
Academic Content Objectives
Contrast treatment of Native Americans by the English with how the French Treated Native Americans.
Contrast English treatment of Native Americans before the Treaty of Paris with treatment after the treaty.
List causes of Pontiac’s War.
Describe efforts by Pontiac to assemble a pan-Indian movement to resist English dominance over the Great Lakes region and the Ohio Valley.
Characterize the initial stages of Pontiac’s War.
Explain the basic strategy of attacking English forts by Pontiac and his allies.
Characterize the English response to Pontiac’s attacks on English forts and settlements.
Describe the changes that occurred as a result of Pontiac’s War.
List the ways in which the results of Pontiac’s War led to rebellion from the English colonies.
List difficulties and challenges of forming a pan-Indian movement in the region of Pontiac’s War.
Explain the significance of Pontiac’s uniting the various tribes to resist English dominance and settler encroachment.
Trace the main events that led to the American Revolutionary War.
Explain how the Revolutionary War united the British colonies but divided Native American groups.
Summarize the main events that occurred in the American Revolutionary War.
Explain how the actions of France helped lead to victory by the United States over England.
Video used in Episode 107
Links to Related Videos
The events in this episode happened between the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War.
Pontiac’s War represents an attempt to unite various Native American tribes to push the English and colonial settlers out of Indian territory. Click here to see the PBS segment on the Fort Michilimackinac Attack. This reenactment includes actions by Ojibwa and Saul warriors.
The fourth part of the PBS series The War that Made America includes high quality dramatization. Click here to watch.
Another high-quality video – including reenactment – tells the story of Michilimackinac in greater detail. Click here for this video about Pontiac’s War.
To view a short video about the Cherokee, Click here.
For a reenactment from the Revolutionary War, Click here.
For a reenactment leading to Yorktown by Huntington Beach, California (A very long way from Yorktown!) click here.
Episode 108 is coming soon. Please visit soon for the Episode 108 Page.